The term “flange” is also used for a kind of tool used to form flanges. A blind flange is a plate for covering ansi flange ratings pdf closing the end of a pipe.
A flange joint is a connection of pipes, where the connecting pieces have flanges by which the parts are bolted together. Common flanges used in plumbing are the Surrey flange or Danzey flange, York flange, Sussex flange and Essex flange. Surrey and York flanges fit to the top of the hot water tank allowing all the water to be taken without disturbance to the tank. They are often used to ensure an even flow of water to showers. An Essex flange requires a hole to be drilled in the side of the tank.
There is also a Warix flange which is the same as a York flange but the shower output is on the top of the flange and the vent on the side. The York and Warix flange have female adapters so that they fit onto a male tank, whereas the Surrey flange connects to a female tank. There are many different flange standards to be found worldwide. To allow easy functionality and interchangeability, these are designed to have standardised dimensions.
Further, many of the flanges in each standard are divided into “pressure classes”, allowing flanges to be capable of taking different pressure ratings. 47 are typically made from forged materials and have machined surfaces. 47 covers NPSs from 26″ to 60″. 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500 and 2500 for B16. 47 delineates its flanges into pressure classes 75, 150, 300, 400, 600, 900.