This article is about the sleeping disorder. They may have difficulty complete guide to prescription and nonprescription drugs 2016 pdf asleep, or staying asleep as long as desired.
Insomnia can be short term, lasting for days or weeks, or long term, lasting more than a month. Insomnia can occur independently or as a result of another problem. Diagnosis is based on sleep habits and an examination to look for underlying causes. Screening may be done with two questions: “do you experience difficulty sleeping? Sleep hygiene includes a consistent bedtime, exposure to sunlight, a quiet and dark room, and regular exercise. Medications are not recommended for more than four or five weeks.
The effectiveness and safety of alternative medicine is unclear. People over the age of 65 are affected more often than younger people. Females are more often affected than males. It is common for patients who have difficulty falling asleep to also have nocturnal awakenings with difficulty returning to sleep. Poor sleep quality is caused by the individual not reaching stage 3 or delta sleep which has restorative properties. Some cases of insomnia are not really insomnia in the traditional sense. Gastrointestinal issues such as heartburn or constipation.
They also have an elevated metabolic rate, which does not occur in people who do not have insomnia but whose sleep is intentionally disrupted during a sleep study. The question remains whether these changes are the causes or consequences of long-term insomnia. Alcohol is often used as a form of self-treatment of insomnia to induce sleep. However, alcohol use to induce sleep can be a cause of insomnia. When the person stops drinking, the body tries to make up for lost time by producing more glutamine than it needs. Stopping chronic alcohol use can also lead to severe insomnia with vivid dreams. However, dependence on opioids can lead to long-term sleep disturbances.
Insomnia affects people of all age groups but people in the following groups have a higher chance of acquiring insomnia. History of mental health disorder including depression, etc. The cognitive model suggests rumination and hyperarousal contribute to preventing a person from falling asleep and might lead to an episode of insomnia. However, it is unknown if the hyperarousal is a result of, or cause of insomnia. Studies on whether insomnia is driven by circadian control over sleep or a wake dependent process have shown inconsistent results, but some literature suggests a dysregulation of the circadian rhythm based on core temperature.