Some of these camps operated only briefly during the entire 38-year period of the Gulag’s existence, and others operated for its entirety. The term is also commonly used in English language to refer to any forced-labor camp in the Soviet Union, including camps that existed in post-Stalin times. 1918 and legalized by a decree “On the creation of the forced-labor camps” on April 15, 1919. The internment system good work secret seven pdf rapidly, reaching a population of 100,000 in the 1920s.
The author likened the scattered camps to “a chain of islands” and as an eyewitness he described the Gulag as a system where people were worked to death. Gulag came out alive, with the exception of the war years. Soviet government would obviously be interested in discrediting Solzhenitsyn, Western governments would have as much interest in lending him credence. 423 labor colonies in the USSR. State Emblem of the Soviet Union. According to some estimates, the total population of the camps varied from 510,307 in 1934 to 1,727,970 in 1953.
According to other estimates, at the beginning of 1953 the total number of prisoners in prison camps was more than 2. 4 million of which more than 465,000 were political prisoners. The institutional analysis of the Soviet concentration system is complicated by the formal distinction between GULAG and GUPVI. In many ways the GUPVI system was similar to GULAG. The top management of GUPVI came from the GULAG system. The major noted distinction from GULAG was the absence of convicted criminals in the GUPVI camps.
Otherwise the conditions in both camp systems were similar: hard labor, poor nutrition and living conditions, and high mortality rate. POWs considered themselves prisoners in the GULAG. Most Gulag inmates were not political prisoners, although significant numbers of political prisoners could be found in the camps at any one time. Petty crimes and jokes about the Soviet government and officials were punishable by imprisonment. Soviet-wide administration of the camps in favor of individual republic MVD branches. The centralized detention facilities temporarily ceased functioning. Even more broadly, “Gulag” has come to mean the Soviet repressive system itself, the set of procedures that prisoners once called the “meat-grinder”: the arrests, the interrogations, the transport in unheated cattle cars, the forced labor, the destruction of families, the years spent in exile, the early and unnecessary deaths.