In 2015, pollution killed 9 million people human activities and environmental pollution pdf the world. Pollution started from prehistoric times when man created the first fires. The burning of coal and wood, and the presence of many horses in concentrated areas made the cities the primary sources of pollution.
1272, after its smoke became a problem. But the fuel was so common in England that this earliest of names for it was acquired because it could be carted away from some shores by the wheelbarrow. Pollution issues escalated as population growth far exceeded view ability of neighborhoods to handle their waste problem. Reformers began to demand sewer systems, and clean water. In 1870, the sanitary conditions in Berlin were among the worst in Europe. Waste-water from the houses collected in the gutters running alongside the curbs and emitted a truly fearsome smell. There were no public toilets in the streets or squares.
Visitors, especially women, often became desperate when nature called. In the public buildings the sanitary facilities were unbelievably primitive. As a metropolis, Berlin did not emerge from a state of barbarism into civilization until after 1870. The primitive conditions were intolerable for a world national capital, and the Imperial German government brought in its scientists, engineers and urban planners to not only solve the deficiencies but to forge Berlin as the world’s model city. A British expert in 1906 concluded that Berlin represented “the most complete application of science, order and method of public life,” adding “it is a marvel of civic administration, the most modern and most perfectly organized city that there is. Chicago and Cincinnati were the first two American cities to enact laws ensuring cleaner air in 1881. 3 million horses who worked in American cities in 1900, generating large quantities of urine and manure.
As historian Martin Melosi notes, The generation that first saw automobiles replacing the horses saw cars as “miracles of cleanliness. By the 1940s, however, automobile-caused smog was a major issue in Los Angeles. Other cities followed around the country until early in the 20th century, when the short lived Office of Air Pollution was created under the Department of the Interior. 1940s, serving as another public reminder.
Awareness of atmospheric pollution spread widely after World War II, with fears triggered by reports of radioactive fallout from atomic warfare and testing. 1952 in London, killed at least 4000 people. Severe incidents of pollution helped increase consciousness. Soviet Union throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Russia, is considered the “Most polluted place on the planet”.
Worldwide publicity has been intense on those disasters. 1984 have demonstrated the universality of such events and the scale on which efforts to address them needed to engage. The borderless nature of atmosphere and oceans inevitably resulted in the implication of pollution on a planetary level with the issue of global warming. This is a less well known pollution problem than the others described above, but nonetheless has multiple and serious consequences such as increasing wildlife mortality, the spread of invasive species and human ingestion of toxic chemicals. Pollution introduced by light at night is becoming a global problem, more severe in urban centres, but nonetheless contaminating also large territories, far away from towns. Blue drain and yellow fish symbol used by the UK Environment Agency to raise awareness of the ecological impacts of contaminating surface drainage.
A pollutant is a waste material that pollutes air, water or soil. Three factors determine the severity of a pollutant: its chemical nature, the concentration and the persistence. If external costs exist, such as pollution, the producer may choose to produce more of the product than would be produced if the producer were required to pay all associated environmental costs. File:Ship Tracks Reveal Pollution’s Effects on Clouds. Air pollution produced by ships may alter clouds, affecting global temperatures. However, globally human-made pollutants from combustion, construction, mining, agriculture and warfare are increasingly significant in the air pollution equation. The United States alone produces about 250 million metric tons.