This article is about the academic the routledge history of literature in english pdf. Greco-Roman philosophy, history, and archaeology.
The study of Classics has been traditionally a cornerstone of a typical elite education. Study encompasses specifically a time-period of history from the mid-2nd millennia BC to the 6th century AD. The word was originally used to describe the members of the highest class in ancient Rome. By the 2nd century AD the word was used in literary criticism to describe writers of the highest quality.
By the 6th century AD, the word had acquired a second meaning, referring to pupils at a school. Thus the two modern meanings of the word, referring both to literature considered to be of the highest quality, and to the standard texts used as part of a curriculum, both derive from Roman use. Photograph of a bronze bust of a man. The Roman poet Catullus was virtually unknown during the medieval period, in contrast to his modern popularity. Jan Ziolkowski, there is no era in history in which the link was tighter. Latin continued to be the language of scholarship and culture, despite the increasing difference between literary Latin and the vernacular languages of Europe during the period.
While Latin was hugely influential, however, Greek was barely studied, and Greek literature survived almost solely in Latin translation. Europeans, were unavailable in the Middle Ages. Latin Christendom who are acquainted with the Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic grammars. Along with the unavailability of Greek authors, there were other differences between the classical canon known today and the works valued in the Middle Ages. Humanism saw a reform in education in Europe, introducing a wider range of Latin authors as well as bringing back the study of Greek language and literature to Western Europe. This humanist educational reform spread from Italy, in Catholic countries as it was adopted by the Jesuits, and in countries that became Protestant such as England, Germany, and the Low Countries, in order to ensure that future clerics were able to study the New Testament in the original language. The late 17th and 18th centuries are the period in Western European literary history which is most associated with the classical tradition, as writers consciously adapted classical models.
From the beginning of the 18th century, the study of Greek became increasingly important relative to that of Latin. Homer to the centre of artistic achievement”. In the United Kingdom, the study of Greek in schools began in the late 18th century. US, where the subject was often criticised for its elitism. Correspondingly, classical education from the 19th century onwards began to increasingly de-emphasise the importance of the ability to write and speak Latin.